A few notes form me:
This is an On going learning Processes. Every time I do another batch of hides I read up more on teqniques s and there are MANY!
The following is what I have used before and a general variation of this seems to work well.
The most important parts of tanning are these 3 key points.
PH levelsAfter the animal is skinned and before you salt it, wash the hide. for me pre-prep is very important. Once the animal has been dis-gloved, and the skin has been opened up, I like to give it a good through washing to get as much blood and dirt off the hide as possible. I will even go as far as shampooing the hide , then let it drip dry. A LOT of what your are going to do will depend on the temperature. If it's warm out their will be bugs so keep that in mind, I use a dish soap and vinegar solution to mist over hung hides while they drip to keep flies away. Once your hide is clean, scrape off as much of the large meaty and fatty chunks as you can before salting, BUT if you don't get them all don't worry you can remove more latter and I have been experimenting with weather it's easier to remove them before or after salting.
The following is adapted from a tutorial written up by Amy Ritchie, I have changed it up a bit .
TANNING WITH EZ-TAN
step by step, tanning a skin, using EZ-Tan.
Before you begin, you will need to have these products:Rittel's Ultra-soft relaxing agent* 1 qt PICKLING ACID, USE RITTEL'S SAFETEE-ACID, 1 quart= 32oz = 64 gal (10 or so solutions) (1/2 oz per 1 gal water) RITTEL'S EZ-TAN 1lb =16 gallons (3 solutions) , (1oz per 1 gal) TANNING OIL ("PRO PLUS 1 quart) (1 part oil to 2 parts hot water) = 3 quarts mixed almost 1 gal SALT have it by the 50lb bag ( get it at a Feed mill, 50lb bag is $5-8) SODIUM BICARBONATE (BAKING SODA) have it by the bag ( sam's club big bag is under $10.00) pH TESTING STRIPS . As well as some large buckets, water, measuring spoons and cups, and a fleshing/shaving tool/ Sharp boning knife or blades.. http://www.fntpost.com/ I placed and order at FnT in July of 2015 this was my prices.
|1||Rittel's ProPlus Tanning Oil - Quart||14.95||14.95|
|1||Rittel's Saftee Acid - Quart||11.95||11.95|
|1||Rittel's EZ-Tan - 1 lb.||4.95||4.95|
|1||Rittel's Ultra-Soft Relaxer - Quart||14.95||14.95|
|1||Universal pH Test Paper||5.95||5.95|
SaltingSalting and drying is very important because it leaches out unwanted liquids, sets the hair tight, and kills most bacteria that is on the hide. Salting is the very first thing you should do after the animal has been skinned. Do not waste time trying to remove small pieces of flesh; you can do that after salting. As long as the skin is in it's raw state, unsalted, it is collecting bacteria. And bacteria are the main cause of hair slippage.
Before salting you should:
- Remove the very large pieces of flesh.. any big chunks of red meat
- Turn the ears, eyes, nostrils, and lips.
- Remove the tail bone, and split the tail if the animal is coon size or larger
- After this is done, apply a heavy layer of salt to the flesh side.
- Rub the salt into the flesh, making sure that it reaches into tight areas such as the ears, legs, and tail.
- Then, fold it flesh-to-flesh, and hair-to-hair, and place it on an inclined surface for 1-2 days.
- You'll want to put some type of drip pan under it, because the hide will start to drain out a lot of liquids.
- When drained, shake out the excess salt and re-apply another layer of clean salt.
- This time, instead of folding the hide, I open it up and run a fan in front of it for a few days.
- Depending on the size of the animal, the hide is usually pretty stiff after a few days.
- After it is dried hard, you can rehydrate it and begin tanning, or just keep the hide like this until ready to tan. I like to stack all my stiff, salted skins against the wall. This is the beauty of drying hides! I have several dry hides folded and set on top of my cabinet waiting for good clear weather to continue tanning. You can save them until ready, without having them take up your freezer space. Both iodized and non-iodized salt work well for this purpose; Non-iodized salt is typically cheaper in large quantities, however, so it is usually preferred.
Pickle on the left, Relaxer on the right.Pickling A pickle is a low pH acidic solution that is used to stabilize skins in the tanning process and stop deterioration. Pickling plumps the skin, which makes shaving easier, and sets the hair. Salt alone simply creates a poor environment for bacteria to live; but unfortunately it doesn't kill it all. The acidity of a pickle does, however. A pickle also helps remove the non-tanable proteins in the skin. Skin is made up of two types of protein - globular and fibrous. Globular protein is the unwanted protein in the skin, and that is what the pickling solution will remove. It will wash the protein away, leaving open sites for the tanning chemicals to attach to. So, once your skins have been salted and relaxed, they are ready to go into a pickle bath! Make sure you have removed any blood stains before you put the skins into the pickle. Pickling acids…There are many acids used to create pickle solutions. These include Formic, Citric, Oxalic, and "Safetee" acid. Citric acid, Formic acid, and Safetee acid are the three most commonly used acids. I use Safetee acid and suggest that you do too, but all the acids have their good points. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ SAFETEE ACID (the best, in my opinion!): Formula: 1/2 oz. Safetee acid 1 lb. Salt 1 Gallon water This is the acid that I use, and I have had great results! The positives are that it is very easy to get, fairly affordable, and extremely safe. It can be re-used if the pH is maintained; it does an excellent job of plumping the skin for shaving, and can be disposed of safely and easily. The negatives? There are none that I have found! I *have* heard several people say that they noticed that, sometimes, the pH goes up quickly once hides are put into it (because the hides are drawing in the acid), and this CAN be dangerous if you don't watch it (high pH = hair slippage). But I have never had this problem, and as long as you keep an eye on the pH and adjust it if it goes up, everything will be fine! ( I recheck my PH every 12 hours and DID have to add more acid at around 24 hours on a warmer 60+ day, ) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ A 3-gallon mix will pickle an average whitetail cape, but it is much better to be safe than sorry, and mix 4 gallons for each cape or 8 gallons for 2 capes, etc. A two or three gallon mix works well for a fox-sized animal or smaller. Just make sure the capes or skins are completely submerged in the pickle. ( for goat and sheep hides I use empty 10 or 20 gal Cattle mineral tubs for Tanning, or Plastic Storage tubs with lids that can be placed on top to keep my dogs out. Sheep hides that have longer wool still attached i find need at least 8 gallons of solution. ) No matter what acid you use, after mixing the pickle up, you should check the pH level using quality pH papers or pH meter. It should read below a 2.0. Usually it reads 1.1. You should not let the pH go about 2.5 during pickling, and definitely not about 3.0, because then bacteria will continue to grow. If the pH is too high, add more acid. If it is too low, add more water and salt or a little baking soda diluted in water. To heighten PH less is more, to lower PH it mat take a bit but only add a little at a time and keep checking the PH with tests stripes... Also a word from me as a HazMat Technician . WEAR GLOVES, and Goggles granted this is relatively safe, but you still should try to avoid contact with your skin to extreme PH, also, do not lick the PH test strips. The time it takes to thoroughly pickle the skin will vary depending on the thickness of the skin. You can tell it is completely pickled when the skin is a milky white color all the way through, with no pink color. The minimum time to pickle is at least 48 hours for small game, bobcats, fox, etc. and a minimum of 3 days for whitetail capes. Be sure to check the pH levels on a regular basis during the period the skin is in the pickle. Do not let the temperature of the pickle go any lower than 55F. Low temperatures cause the salt level to drop, thus lowering the protection of the pickle. For best results, keep the mixture at room temperature. I usually leave goat and sheep and calf skin in the pickle for at least 72 hours, but up to 5 days . It will take more time If it is cold vs if it is warm . Shaving After at least three days in the pickle, you should take the skins out of the mixture and shave them. The thinner the skins are shaved, the softer they will be in the end. Light furs, such as fox or coyote, can be tanned soft without shaving. However, heavier thick skins like deer, buffalo, moose, or elk should definitely been shaven. The most preferred method for shaving is using a fleshing machine. Now, if you're a beginner, don't worry!! There ARE alternate methods. You can do a fairly good shaving job by simply using a scalpel blade. It will take longer than a fleshing machine (a lot longer!), but it will work. I use this method a lot, and I prefer to use #22 scalpel blades. Some tanners also compensate for shaving by double oiling the skins (we'll talk about oiling later on), or sanding the skins thin once they are dry. I like to do this as well. After tanning, let the skin dry out COMPLETELY (very important). Then, sand the skins using an electric sander. I found that a heavy grit sandpaper works better than a light grit, but be gentle when sanding, especially on thin skins. If your skins do not need to be degreased, you can now return them to the pickle. Always return the skins to the pickle. This will allow it to penetrate to areas that have now been exposed by shaving.( sheep hides will need to be degreased.) Degreasing If you skin is a greasy type, such a bear or raccoon, it will need to be degreased after shaving. use 1/2 oz. of Dawn dish soap per gallon of water (if only light degreasing is necessary). Leave the skins in the solution for 30 minutes. Then rinse the skins and return them to the pickle for at least another 24 hours. Using Safetee Acid, they can be left in the pickle safely for at least 2 weeks before neutralizing and tanning. Neutralizing When you are ready to tan, remove the skins from the pickle and let them drain for 30 minutes or so. While they drain, mix up a neutralizing bath. So, what is the purpose of a neutralizing bath? Well, it brings the pH level of the skin up. Most tanning agents bond better to the skin at a pH of 4 to 5, which is approximately the pH that your neutralizing bath should be. For every gallon of water needed to submerge the skins, add 1 tablespoon of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). Put the skins into the mixture and stir them in the mixture for 20 minutes. Do not leave them in for longer than 20 minutes, or you may not get as much stretch out of them once they are tanned! After neutralizing, rinse them and allow them to drain. Tanning with EZ-Tan EZ-Tan, in my opinion, is one of the best tanning agents you can buy. The skins are white-leathered, durable, soft, and stretchy, and there is little shrinkage! It is great to use for pelts, garments, taxidermy use, and rug work. EZtan is a WASHABLE tan (making it great for garment use!), and Lutan skins can not be washed. Tanning agents are very sensitive, and you should always check the pH before putting the skins into the tanning solution. EZ-Tan tans at a level of 4.0 pH. If the pH is too low, add small amounts of baking soda. If higher, add small amounts of the pickle, or some Safetee Acid (very small amounts). Check the pH before putting the skins into the mixture, and also a half hour later. There are two different formulas for mixing EZ-Tan: Tanning Formula based on water volume: <- I use this one You may prefer to make things simple and simply mix enough solution to completely submerge the skins. This formula is based on the amount of water used. For every 1-gallon of water wanted, mix: 1-gallon water 1 oz. EZ-Tan (3 level tablespoonfuls = 1 oz.) 8 oz. salt You should be careful not to overcrowd the skins when using this method. ( I use the recycled 10 gal cattle mineral tubs this can do one Wooly sheep pelt, or 2 adult goat/ hair sheep hides at a time.) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ When mixing, you should first add the EZ-Tan to the water and let it dissolve; then add your salt. ( I also reuse the salt from the salting proccesss to mix into my solutions. ) Keep the tanning solution at a comfortable room temperature (between 65-75F). Leave the skins in the mixture for 16-24 hours. 16 hours will work well for a small fox-sized animal. Almost all skins will thoroughly tan in 24 hours. After the required amount of time, remove the skins from the solution. Rinse them and allow them to drain for only 20 minutes, no longer, or they will get too dry. Oiling Did you know that oiling is THE most important factor in producing a soft, supple pelt? It's true! That's why it is so important that you invest in good quality tanning oil. Once the skins have drained for 20 minutes, they are ready to be oiled. Mix the oil using 1 part oil to 2 parts hot water. It is important that the mixture be warm, because the oil will bond to the skin best when warm. Make sure that the pelt you are oiling is at room temperature, too. Apply the oil to flesh side of the pelt using a paintbrush. You may also want to rub it in with your hands (I would advise wearing plastic gloves). Apply it carefully around the edges and around holes. Keep applying the oil until the skin will take up no more. Then fold the skin up tightly, flesh to flesh and hair to hair. Put it in a warm spot to "sweat" for 4-6 hours. Maximum take-up of oil will occur in this period. Drying Some people double-oil their skins, but I read an article by Mr. Rittel (the maker of many great tanning products) and he said that that double oiling is just making up for using cheap oil. If you use high-quality oil and oil the skin well enough, there should be no reason for doing it again. It's a waste of time and oil! <-- this is true from exsperiance i use a "cream" oil my first time and I oiled it 3 times and it never kept right. the next year when i m next batch of hides I re oiled it with the Proplus oil.. what a differance it makes! Spend the extra money on te good oil, It will save you a world of headache. ) If you want to dry and finish the skin… after it has sweated in the oil, open it up and hang it to dry. The time it takes to dry depends on the thickness of the flesh. It will usually take 1-2 days, but some of my thin pelts have only taken a few hours to dry! Some people put their pelts in the clothes dryer to dry them quicker (assuming it is set on NO heat). I haven't tried this, but I've heard that it can dry the skin out too much and make the skin crack when dried.
Stretching and WorkingWhen the skin is almost dry, but not quite, begin to work and stretch the fibers of the skin with your hands. This is where the work comes in, but it must be done to produce a soft pelt. If you stretch the skin carefully and the place you stretched turns white, then that area is ready to be worked and stretched. If it doesn't turn white, then it is not quite dry enough. Continue carefully stretching and pulling on the skin until the whole thing is white and it feels very soft. Finishing When the skin is completely dry, use sandpaper to clean up the flesh side (or shave it thinner, if you need to), and trim away any ragged edges. If the skin feels too stiff, you can try sanding down the flesh to produce a softer skin. If everything goes well, you should be rewarded with a soft, stretchy pelt with a nice white leather, that will last for a long, long time!! I personally havn't had much luck sanding pelts yet.. I do have decent luck streching though, and find a very large smooth Trailer ball hitch can be a good tool.. but this is an area i'm still exspermenting at.. although honestly any week your doing pelts can subsitute for both strenghth and cardio if you want to skip the gym.. becuse your going to be doing both for HOURS to get thos pelyts to turn white. For Woolly Hides I like to brush them periodically so they remain fluffy. I just use a large Slicker Brush like you would for a dog.. or a carding bush they are the same type of bristles.
And thats the basics of Hide tanning, you can do nothing more but oil them when they get dry and use them as Rugs or Throws ,
Or you can cut them up and make all kinds of projects .